Biomass Potential of Central Eastern Europe

Biomass: A mass of organic matter of biological origin, body mass of living or recently died organisms in one biocoenosis or biome, on dry land or in water (plants, animals microorganisms), products of biotechnological industries; and any biological product, waste or residual product of the different transformers (human, animals, processing industry etc.). The body mass of humans is not included in the concept of biomass, but the biogas from the wastewater is. The primary source of biomass is the assimilation activity of plants. The process of its formation is the main topic of production biology. The plant-originated biomass is phytomass, and the animal-originated biomass is the zoomass. According to its place in the production-consumption chain biomass can be primary, secondary and tertiary. The primary biomass is the natural vegetation, crops, forests, fields, pastures, and garden and water plants. The secondary biomass is the fauna and the domesticated livestock, and the products, by-products and waste of livestock production. The tertiary biomass is the any product, by-product and waste of the processing industry dealing with biologically originated materials, and the organic materials of human settlements. The main use of biomass is food production, animal nutrition, energy-purposed use, and the production of agricultural raw material. Burning, pelleting, pyrolisation, gassing, and the production of biogas are the main utilization ways for energy production. Microorganisms proliferate very quickly during the aerobic biological wastewater treatment in proportion to the available nutrients, the oxygen content of the water, and the temperature. The biomass is the body mass of dead microorganisms, which can be removed by settling or flotation (activated sludge). Biomass formation can occur in an oxygen-free medium through anaerobic microorganisms, but at a much slower speed. Another form of biomass formation is the bloom of algae in living waters (cooling waters). (Lexicon of Environmental Protection)